By now César Aira’s Ghosts (1980, trans. 2008 by Chris Andrews) has gotten a lot of attention and people have moved on to other Aira titles (of which there are a lot of choices), so I’m a little late to the party. It is a fantastic little book, deceptively short in that it demands pausing and letting your mind work over the densely interwoven details: not that the prose is especially difficult, although some of the more philosophical passages take time to parse, but anyone reading alertly will keep stumbling over details that suggest others in the book. Aira’s increasingly well-known writing method, wherein he writes a page a day and refuses to return and edit a finished page, shows in the way that the narrator’s focus shifts relatively quickly from one topic to another, or from one character’s perspective to another’s. Patri, the young woman who becomes the focus of the later part of the novel, considers at one point, as her mother and aunt shift among conversation topics, that it was “something to be marveled at, a challenge to belief: how is it that conversation topics keep coming up, one after another, inexhaustibly, as if they weren’t tied to objects, which are finite, as if they were pure form?” This comment is clearly self-referential to the book’s structure, but it neglects the way that all these arbitrary transitions build up into a chain of metonymic connections: passages that at first seem unconnected are nonetheless evoked as the book continues, and despite what appears like slipshod construction on a page-to-page basis, the novel builds a solid structure.
The novel follows the activity of a day at a construction site on New Year’s Eve when the work should be done but isn’t. In the morning the various future apartment tenants show up with their personal decorators to take measurements and make plans while the workers continue their jobs. By lunch, the tenants are gone and the holiday begins for the workers, and the book narrows to focus on the family of Raúl Viñas, who doubles as security guard for the site and lives on the top floor, as they prepare for the arrival of relatives for a New Year’s Eve dinner and fireworks. Meanwhile, throughout the book, ghosts haunt the construction site—ghosts whom only the workers and their families can see.
I’ve seen a number of brief interpretations of the ghosts, several revolving around their representation of sexuality (particularly to Patri, who is apparently sexually active but on the verge of being officially an “adult” expected to find a husband ASAP)—but I think in some sense this is opposite of the truth. My take is that the ghosts signify counterfactuals: that is, futures that will not come to pass, things that could be but will not. This is why we have the focus on the almost-complete year and the incomplete construction site, and on Patri’s almost completed childhood. The owners of these future apartments can’t see the ghosts, I think, because the building is going to end up just the way they want it, suited just to their (middle-class) needs. Likewise, to the extent that they suggest sex at all for Patri (and really I think a big part of the attraction is that despite their nakedness their sexuality is mute), it is against a narrative of growing up, getting married, and repeating the lives of her mother and aunts. The ghosts, in this case, suggest everything the life of a young woman might be, if she weren’t tethered to the real expectations of marriage and motherhood that are likely to push other possibilities into the realm of fantasy. Patri’s preference for the ghosts, at the end, is to me a kind of protest against life if life must mean a set path that she would not imagine for herself. My sense is that some readers may take Patri’s actions, as her mother does, as a sign of a problem with Patri, but I take it as indicative of a problem with her world that she sees and cannot solve.